International Human Rights Public Protection Association

What is Human Rights

Human rights are the basic rights of every person in any part of the world, irrespective of caste, creed, gender, age, color status. It includes all anti-social, economic, political, cultural elements based on the law of nature for the purpose of ensuring justice, liberty and equality. individual and collective existence.

Human rights enforcement agencies include the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, National Human Rights Commissions in various countries, Amnesty International, the international human rights movement, and a number of NGOs in different parts of the world that enforce human rights. United Nations agencies are among the United Nations agencies that enforce human rights.

History of Human Rights

Over the centuries, women across the world have not only been denied full justice, social, economic and political, but they have been used, abused, exploited, and then tilled their death as immoral, street vagabonds and He was abandoned to lead a destitute life. Although they constitute almost half of the total population and at no time have they contributed and sacrificed less than men in the national freedom struggle. But they have been deprived of their fair share in various spheres of activities and inhuman and degrading mistakes have been committed.

Without any sin from birth to death since then the generally unfortunate notion has been that women are a sub-human society, an object of contempt and ridicule, an object for barter, an expendable asset and merely for sexual pleasure. is a game.

Ancient Judo-Christian society treated women as a scorpion, ever ready to sting, and pagan Arabs saw her in the devil’s whip. Indians considered women to be burnt on the pyre of their husbands as a social evil. Nowadays though women have broken their anti social shackles and are ready to face the contemporary challenges without any help and slack and as a result, 8 March is formally celebrated as a symbol of unified achievements in many countries including India celebrated and celebrated.

Women constitute almost half of the global population in the contemporary world scenario towards equality of rights, status and dignity of women and their equal participation in economic, social and cultural development but they are kept in various disadvantageous positions due to gender difference and prejudice She has been the victim of violence and exploitation by the male dominated society all over the world. We have a traditionalist society where women have been exploited socially, economically, physically, psychologically and sexually since time immemorial, sometimes in the name of religion, sometimes on the pretext of writing in the scriptures and sometimes due to social restrictions. The concept of equality between man and woman was almost unknown to us before the enactment of the Constitution of India.

Undoubtedly, the Preamble of the Constitution, which is the supreme law of the land, seeks to bring justice to its citizens including women, social, economic and political, history is a silent witness to the most inhuman suffering inflicted upon man by man. The right of an individual to his liberty is the most sacred right to him and therefore, it should not be restricted without the sanction of the law. In modern philosophy a fruitful and meaningful life is filled with dignity, respect, health and well-being.

The treatment of man which outrages human dignity, inflicts avoidable torture, and reduces man to the level of an animal, would certainly be arbitrary and impossible as a human code of conduct in all religions. In his inaugural speech at the Symposium on Human Rights organized by Justice PN Bhagwati ILA of the Supreme Court of India, Allahabad presented that the Babylonian laws of protection of human rights are deeply incorporated into the Assyrian laws, interests laws and religion of Vedic times in India The description of the right to patronage was discussed extensively and intelligently by Plato’s Greek and Roman philosophers. They were discussed on religious grounds. The right to vote, the right to trade, the right to justice for its citizens, etc. were given by the city of the Greek state.

King John of England granted the Magna Carta to the English warren on 15 June 1215 that their privileges would not be encroached upon and attacked with a hammer. The significance of the Magnacarta was consequently confirmed by Parliament in 1216–17 during the period of John’s son Henry 111, confirmed in the year 1297 and revised by Edward I. Parliamentary superiority was formed by petition in 1689. In England the authority over the Crown and the Veal of Rights and the rule of law was controlled by documentary authority. The declarations and constitutional branches of many states are supported by the expression of Fundamental Rights. The Declaration of Independence of the Thirteen United States in 1776 with the Virginia Veal of Rights 1776, 1787 Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America 1789, 1865, 1865 It was the golden rays of the sun that brought the nineteenth century world to human rights. It was enlightening to know about Vaar. Realizing the value of human personality. The result of the human rights movement was experienced by humans after World War II. Due to the heinous crimes committed against humanity during the war, the entire humanism was stunned and human rights were destroyed. History has witnessed the silent tyranny and complete anarchy of the Nazi leaders of Germany. Human values ​​and dignity and morality were brutally denied. People’s rights have become the need of the hour for international peace and security. President Franklin D. Roosevelt reflected in the four proclamations of independence on 6 January 1941 and it is mentioned as follows,

  1. Freedom of Expression,
  2.  Freedom of religion.
  3. Freedom from desire.
  4. Freedom from Fear

The President’s Declaration carries weight. He said that freedom means the supremacy of human rights. Everywhere our support goes to those who struggle to achieve or maintain those rights. The growth and development of human rights and international law had made a remarkable progress since 1945. Many charter treaties etc. came into existence for effective enforcement of human rights.


Human Rights Issues

Continuous efforts are being made by the Commission to address various human rights issues. Some of these issues are being monitored on the directions of the Supreme Court as a program. Other programs and human rights issues taken up by the commission include Review of the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 1929, Protocol to Convention on the Rights Preventing Employment of Children by Government Employees, Amendments to Service Rules, Abolition of Child Labor, Trafficking in Women and Children Against Child Sexual Violence for the Media Media to book. Manual for Judiciary for Gender Sensitization Program on Prevention of Sex Tourism and Trafficking and Human Rights Rehabilitation of Destitute Women in Vrindavan Combating Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace. Harassment of women passengers in trains Harassment of women passengers in trains Manual eradication of dalit issues including atrocities Problems blamed on them Problems faced by denotified and nomadic tribes. Right to Health of the Disabled 1999 HIV/AIDS relief work for the victims. Orissa Monitoring of relief measures taken after Cyclone Gujarat. Earthquake 2001 District Grievance Authority Population Policy Development and Human Rights. The Commission for Abolition of Bonded Labor has been involved in monitoring the implementation of the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act in accordance with the directions of the Supreme Court in WP(Civil) No. 3922 of 1985 (PUCL v. State of Tamil Nadu et al.). The Commission is presently monitoring the BLS (Abolition) Act by seeking information from the States on a quarterly basis regarding the identification, release and rehabilitation of bonded labour. In September 2000, NHRC to examine the matter closely and prepare a report on the situation, to suggest ways to improve the existing schemes and make recommendations for effective implementation of laws for eradication of bonded labor system and other connected matters. A group of experts was formed to The report of the expert group was submitted to the Supreme Court. The report included the status of work related to the abolition of the bonded labor system in various states. It gave details of the status of various existing schemes. and made recommendations to amend the Act so as to make it more effective. NHRC The Ministry of Labor, through its Special Reporters, is in talks with the State Governments and the Ministry of Labor to develop suitable measures to eliminate the problem of bonded labour. The commission is engaged in sensitizing the District Magistrates, Deputy Commissioners, Deputy Development Commissioners and other senior officers of the State Government by organizing sensitization workshops. These workshops are presided over by the Chairman and members of the Commission. Sensitization workshops were organized for District Magistrates in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Karnataka during 2003-04.

The management of mental hospitals at Ranchi, Agra and Gwalior had come under the scrutiny of the Supreme Court through Writ Petition (C) No. 339/96 No.901/93 No.80/94 and No.448/94. The case of Rakesh Chandra Narayan etc. Vs. State of Bihar etc. The Supreme Court in its order dated 11 November 1997 requested the National Human Rights Commission to be involved in monitoring the functioning of these three hospitals. Pursuant to the Supreme Court order, the Commission is deeply involved in overseeing the functioning of Ranchi Institute of Neuro Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS), Institute of Mental Health and Hospital (IMHH) Agra, and Gwalior Mental Healthcare GMA Gwalior Commission. A Member and Special Rapporteur of the State Government visits these institutions from time to time and submits detailed reports on the functioning of various services and facilities, treatment and care of patients, training and research activities and community health services as specified by the Supreme Court. As a result of monitoring by the Commission, there has been an improvement in the functioning of these institutions. Admission and leave have been streamlined as per the provisions of the Mental Health Act 1987. A marked shift in the functioning of these institutions from custody to treatment and care concerns is noticeable. Admissions to the cell have been completely stopped. With the open system of patient custody, continuous improvement is being done in the switchover. Due to the meticulous examination of each case by the Commission, the incidence of death of patients has come down. There has been a marked improvement in library facilities, training activities and research work at RINPAS Ranchi and IMH and Agra. Community mental health care initiatives are getting more attention than ever before. A core group has been constituted under the chairmanship of a member of the commission for rehabilitation of mentally ill patients in three mental hospitals.


Operation of government security home women Agra

As per the directions of the Supreme Court of India in Writ Petition No. 1900/81 Dance Upendra Bakshi & Ors. Vs. State of Uttar Pradesh, Order dated 11 November 1997, the Commission is monitoring the functioning of the Govt. Protective Home (Women) Agra. The District Judge of Agra has been entrusted with the responsibility of conducting monthly inspections and submitting a travel report to the Commission. Reporters are scrutinized by the commission and appropriate directions are given to the state government for overall improvement in the working of the home. A member of the Commission as well as a Special Reporter of the Commission visit the house frequently to make a comprehensive assessment of the functioning of the Institute. The last time the home run was done was on 5 May 2003 and some discrepancies were noticed during the journey. The Commission has taken up the matter with the State Government. The commission called the Director (Women) Welfare Govt. For effective co-operation between the concerned wings of the Administration for effective implementation of Immoral Traffic Prevention Act of Director (Women Welfare) for discussion with Home Superintendent and District Probation Officer, Agra, Uttar Pradesh for review of the working of Home on 2001 – 2004 Instructions were given to take proactive steps in Agra and elsewhere in the state. The Director (Women Welfare) has been asked to prepare an action plan within a stipulated time frame for implementation of the Act in law and spirit.


Right to Food

On 3rd December 1996, the Commission took cognizance of a letter from the then Union Agriculture Minister Shri Chaturanan Mishra regarding the deaths due to drought in Bolangir district of Orissa. On 23 December 1996, the Indian Council of Legal Aid and Advice and others filed a writ petition (Civil No. 42/97) before the Supreme Court of India under Article 32 of the Constitution, alleging that starvation deaths are continuing in Orissa. When the writ petition came before the Supreme Court of India on 26th July, 1997, the Court directed as follows. In view of the fact that the NHRC has seized the matter and is expected to conduct on the spot investigation After submitting its report, it would be appropriate to wait for the report. Learned counsel for the petitioner said that some interim directions are required to be given in the meantime. If so, the petitioner is permitted to approach the National Human Rights Commission with his suggestion Pursuant to the orders of the Supreme Court, the Legal Aid and Advice Council of India filed a petition before the Commission on 1st September 1997, giving various suggestions regarding interim relief to the affected applicant. After considering the matter, the Commission took this view on 17.2.1998. reached that some interim measures of two years should be done for the entire period.

The Commission also requested the Orissa State Government to constitute a committee to examine all aspects of the land reform question in the districts of KB. In addition, the Commission is regularly monitoring the progress of implementation of its directions with the help of its own Special Reporter. The Commission observed that since the reports of starvation deaths from some parts of the country are the result of misgovernance as a result of lapses of public servants and acts of the Commission, the provisions of the Commission are directly concerned. Protection of Human Rights Act 1931 The Commission is of the view that being free from hunger is a fundamental right of the people of the country. Hence starvation is a gross denial and violation of this right. Subsequently, the Commission felt the need to formulate a program of action to make the right to food a reality in the country. Keeping this in view, a meeting was held in January 2004 with leading experts on the subject to discuss issues related to the Right to Food. The Commission has approved the constitution of a Core Group on the Right to Food, which may advise on the issues referred to it and also suggest suitable programmes, which may be initiated by the Commission.


Elimination of Child Labor

The NHRC is deeply concerned about the employment of child labor in the country as it deprives children of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution and international contracts. The persistence of widespread child labor in our country after seventy years of independence has not been a matter of essential concern. It is prevalent in spite of Articles 23, 24, 39 (e) and (f), 41, 45 and 47 of the Constitution and the passage of various laws on the subject between 1948 and 1986. The International Labor Organization to which India is a party and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, besides the declaration of a National Child Labor Policy in 1987, a National Authority for the Elimination of Child Labor (NECL) in the growing areas of our country and the National Child Labor Projects (NCLP) subsequent formation of the undertaking. The commission focused its attention on the following industries, from where large-scale reports of child labor were received. These include inter alia the following,

  1. Bangle/Glass Industry.
  2. Silk Industry.
  3. Lock Industry
  4. Stone Quarries
  5. Brick Kiln
  6. Diamond Cutting
  7. Ship breaking
  8. Construction work
  9. Carpet weaving

The Commission monitors the situation of child labor in the country through its special reports, member visits, sensitization programs and workshops, projects, interactions with industry associations and other relevant agencies, coordination with State Governments and NGOs. to ensure that adequate steps are taken. Taken to end child labor. The Commission is of the view that until the reality of free and compulsory education for all is realized by the age of 14, the problem of child labor will continue. The commission has involved the non-governmental organization sector in the non-formal education of laborers and many such schools/training centers are functioning in the district area, there is also a marked improvement in the level of awareness among the general public about the issues of child labor.


Review of the Prevention of Child Marriage Act 1929

In order to curb the practice of marriage in the country, the Commission in July 2002 recommended several amendments to the Central Government (Women and Child Development Department) in the Prevention of Marriage Act, 1929. Pursuant to these recommendations, the Central Government (Legislative Department, Ministry of Law and Justice) introduced a Bill called the Prevention of Child Marriage Bill 2004 in the Rajya Sabha on 20/12/2004 incorporating almost all the recommendations of the Commission. The Bill is presently under consideration of the Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances Law and Justice. The salient features of the bill are as follows.

  1. To make a provision to declare child marriage voidable at the option of the party contracting the marriage … who had a child.
  2. Her husband or if he is a minor at the time of marriage. To provide provision to the guardian to pay maintenance till the remarriage of minor girl child.
  3. To make provision for the protection and maintenance of children born out of child marriage.
  4. Provided that a decree of incapacitation under section 3 of the proposed section 3 annuls the child marriage, every child born of such marriage whether before or after the commencement of the proposed law for all purposes will be valid.
  5. To empower the District Court to add, modify or annul any order relating to the maintenance etc. of the woman petitioner.
  6. To make provision to declare child marriage void in certain circumstances.
  7. Empowering courts to issue injunctions prohibiting the solemnization of marriages in contravention of the provisions of the proposed law.
  8. To make offenses under the proposed law cognizable for investigation and other purposes.
  9. To make provision for the appointment of Child Marriage Prevention Officers by the State Governments.
  10. Empowering State Governments to make rules for effective administration of law


Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

The United Nations General Assembly on 26 March 2000 adopted two optional protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, viz.

  1. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Participation of Children in Armed Conflict and
  2. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child to Children, Child Prostitution and the Sale of Child Pornography.

The commission recommended to the Government of India to adopt these protocols. The Ministry of External Affairs has informed that New York, India’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations, was authorized to sign the said Optional Protocol and in whose favor the instrument of full powers to sign the same was obtained from the President of India . Accordingly, the above Optional Protocol was signed on 15 November 2004. With a view to prevent the employment of children below the age of 14 years by Government servants, the Commission recommended that the relevant service rules governing the conduct of Central and State Government employees be amended to achieve this objective. The Union Ministry of Personnel and Public Grievances and Pensions (Department of Personnel and Training) has informed the Commission that the Central Government has amended the All India Services (Conduct) Rules, 1968 as well as the Central Civil Services (Conduct) Rules. 1964 All the States/Union Territories except Manipur State have also brought necessary amendments in the Conduct Rules of their employees. The commission intends to monitor the issue and see whether the central and state governments actually take action against public servants who continue to employ children as domestic servants.